>Comparison between Measurement Techniques Used for Determination of the Micropipe Density in SiC Substrates
Micropipe density (MPD) is a crucial parameter for silicon carbide (SiC) substrates that determines the quality, stability and yield of the semiconductor devices built on these substrates. The importance of MPD is underscored by the fact that all existing specifications for 6H- and 4H-SiC substrates set upper limits for it. Several methods for measuring the MPD are known, however, their reliability and applicability to various types of substrates (e.g. semiinsulating, conducting, etc.) has not been systematically studied. The subject of this paper is a comparative study of various techniques used for the MPD measurement accompanied by statistical analysis of the results. The study was initiated by several organizations working in the immediate field of silicon carbide or in closely related fields and included SiC substrate manufacturers, substrate consumers, equipment manufacturers and universities. The study represented a round robin experiment in which MPD was measured on thirty SiC wafers of various pedigrees. The values of MPD have been determined using both destructive and non-destructive techniques. The repeatability of each technique is analyzed and compared with that of other techniques.
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